National Association of Christian Ministers Summary Series: Theology
Monotheism is the religious belief that God is “one” (singular). Example religions are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
The opposite of monotheism is polytheism (many), which is the religious belief that God is many. Example religions are Hinduism, Confucianism, and Taoism.
Christian monotheism is the belief in one God as revealed in the Bible and understood through Christian theology. Christians believe that there is only one God, who exists as three persons in the Holy Trinity: the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. This belief is based on biblical teachings such as the Shema in Deuteronomy 6:4-5, where God declares, “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one.”
Christian monotheism emphasizes the unity and sovereignty of God, who is considered to be the creator of the universe and the source of all life. Christians believe that God is loving, just, and merciful, and that he desires a personal relationship with each individual. This belief is central to Christian faith and is reflected in Christian worship and prayer.
The concept of Christian monotheism distinguishes Christianity from other religions, such as polytheistic religions that believe in multiple gods and monotheistic religions that may have different understandings of the nature of God. In Christianity, the belief in one God is essential to the faith and is considered to be a foundational truth that shapes all other aspects of Christian belief and practice.