National Association of Christian Ministers Summary Series

Peter, Apostle, Simon Peter (also known as Cephas)

Birth: Around the early 1st century

Death: Tradition holds that he was martyred in Rome, possibly crucified upside down during the reign of Emperor Nero, around 64-67 AD.

Occupation: Fisherman


1. Call to Discipleship (Matthew 4:18-20, Mark 1:16-18, Luke 5:1-11)

Peter was a fisherman on the Sea of Galilee when he and his brother Andrew were called by Jesus to become His disciples.


2. Confession of Christ (Matthew 16:13-20, Mark 8:27-30, Luke 9:18-20)

Peter famously declared that Jesus was “the Christ, the Son of the living God,” earning him the name “Peter” (which means “rock“), and Jesus proclaimed that upon this confession, He would build His Church.


3. Transfiguration (Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:2-10, Luke 9:28-36)

Peter was one of the three disciples who witnessed the transfiguration of Jesus on a mountain, where they saw Him in His glorified state, along with Moses and Elijah.


4. Denial of Jesus (Matthew 26:69-75, Mark 14:66-72, Luke 22:54-62, John 18:15-18, 25-27)

During the night of Jesus’ arrest, Peter denied knowing Him three times, just as Jesus had predicted.


5. Commissioned as Shepherd (John 21:15-19)

After His resurrection, Jesus reinstated Peter three times, charging him to feed His lambs and sheep, emphasizing his role as a leader in the early Christian community.


6. Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:1-41)

Peter played a prominent role on the day of Pentecost, preaching a powerful sermon to the crowd gathered in Jerusalem and seeing thousands of people come to faith in Christ.


7. Healing of the Lame Man (Acts 3:1-10)

Peter, along with John, healed a lame beggar at the Beautiful Gate of the temple, attracting more attention to their ministry.


8. Peter’s Vision and Cornelius’ Conversion (Acts 10:1-48)

Peter had a vision from God, leading to his realization that the Gospel was for all people, not just Jews. As a result, he visited Cornelius, a Roman centurion, and his household, witnessing the outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon them.


9. Imprisonment and Angelic Release (Acts 12:1-19)

Peter was imprisoned by King Herod but miraculously freed by an angel while the Church was fervently praying for him.


10. Early Church Leadership (Galatians 2:7-10)

Peter played a significant role in the leadership of the early Church and was considered one of the pillars, alongside James and John.


Peter’s life and ministry left a lasting impact on Christianity. He was an ordinary man whom Jesus chose, and despite his human weaknesses, he became an instrumental figure in spreading the Gospel and laying the foundation of the Christian Church.