Calvinism (Term)

Calvinism is a theological framework within Christianity that originated with the teachings of John Calvin, a prominent theologian during the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. It emphasizes the sovereignty of God in all aspects of salvation from election to glorification, and is often summarized by the acronym TULIP, which stands for:

  1. Total Depravity: This doctrine posits that as a result of the fall of man (Genesis 3), every part of human nature is corrupted by sin, making individuals incapable of coming to God without His divine intervention.

  2. Unconditional Election: God has predestined certain individuals for salvation, not based on their merit or foreseen faith, but out of His mercy and sovereign will.

  3. Limited Atonement (also known as Particular Redemption): Christ’s death was sufficient for all, but it was efficaciously applied only to those whom God has elected for salvation.

  4. Irresistible Grace: The saving grace of God is effectually applied to those whom He has determined to save (the elect) and overcomes their resistance to obeying the call of the gospel.

  5. Perseverance of the Saints: Those whom God has called into communion with Himself through Christ will continue in faith and will not permanently fall away.

Calvinism has been influential in several Protestant traditions, particularly in Reformed churches, shaping their doctrines of salvation, worship practices, and ecclesiastical life.