National Association of Christian Ministers Summary Series

David, a key figure in the Old Testament of the Bible, is known for his rise from a shepherd to become the renowned king of Israel. His life story is recorded in several books, primarily in 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, and the Psalms. Here is a biography of David, along with relevant scriptural citations:


1. David’s Anointing by Samuel (1 Samuel 16:1-13):

David, the youngest son of Jesse from Bethlehem, was anointed by the prophet Samuel at God’s command. Despite being overlooked by his family, God saw David’s heart and chose him to be the future king of Israel. The Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward.


2. David’s Victory over Goliath (1 Samuel 17:1-58):

David’s courage and faith in God were demonstrated when he faced the giant Philistine warrior, Goliath. Armed with only a sling and stones, David defeated Goliath and became a symbol of God’s deliverance for Israel. This victory catapulted David into prominence.


3. David’s Friendship with Jonathan (1 Samuel 18:1-4):

Jonathan, the son of King Saul, became a dear friend and ally of David. Their friendship was marked by loyalty and mutual respect, even though Jonathan’s father Saul eventually became jealous of David and sought to kill him.


4. David’s Fugitive Years (1 Samuel 21-31):

After Saul’s jealousy turned into a deep-seated hatred for David, David was forced to flee and live as a fugitive. During this period, he gathered a group of loyal followers, including his mighty warriors. Despite being pursued by Saul, David refused to harm the king, respecting him as God’s anointed.


5. David Becomes King (2 Samuel 2-5):

Following Saul’s death, David was anointed king over the tribe of Judah. After a period of conflict and negotiation, David eventually became the undisputed king of all Israel. He captured Jerusalem, making it the capital city, and established a strong and prosperous kingdom.


6. David’s Sin with Bathsheba (2 Samuel 11:1-27):

One of the most well-known incidents in David’s life is his affair with Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite. David’s lust led him to commit adultery and later orchestrate Uriah’s death in battle. However, God sent the prophet Nathan to confront David, who repented and acknowledged his wrongdoing.


7. David’s Psalm of Repentance (Psalm 51):

After his sin with Bathsheba, David composed a heartfelt psalm of repentance, acknowledging his guilt and seeking God’s forgiveness. Psalm 51 reflects David’s humility, contrition, and dependence on God’s mercy.


8. David’s Reign and Accomplishments (2 Samuel 7:1-16):

During David’s reign, Israel experienced peace and prosperity. He brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, desired to build a permanent temple for God (although that task was left to his son Solomon), and established just governance throughout the land. David is also credited with composing numerous psalms, expressing his deep devotion and praise for God.


9. David’s Legacy and Succession (2 Samuel 23:1-7):

In his final words, recorded in 2 Samuel 23, David spoke of his deep relationship with God and prophesied about the future Messiah. David’s son Solomon succeeded him as king, and the dynasty of David continued, with Jesus ultimately being born through his lineage.


David’s biography showcases a complex figure who experienced triumphs, failures, and spiritual growth. His life serves as a reminder of God’s faithfulness, forgiveness, and the importance of a heart devoted to Him.