1. Lutheran Church: Lutheranism originated from the teachings of Martin Luther during the Protestant Reformation. Lutherans emphasize the authority of Scripture, salvation by grace through faith, and the priesthood of all believers. The Lutheran communion includes various regional and national churches.
2. Reformed Churches: Also known as Calvinism, Reformed theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, predestination, and the authority of Scripture. Reformed denominations include the Presbyterian Church, the Dutch Reformed Church, and the United Church of Christ, among others.
3. Anglican Communion: Originating from the Church of England, Anglicanism combines elements of Protestantism and Catholicism. It recognizes the monarch of England as its symbolic head and maintains a diverse range of beliefs and practices. The Episcopal Church is part of the Anglican Communion in the United States.
4. Baptist Churches: Baptists emphasize individual freedom, the autonomy of local congregations, and believer’s baptism by immersion. They advocate for religious freedom and the separation of church and state. Various Baptist denominations exist, such as the Southern Baptist Convention and the American Baptist Churches USA.
5. Methodist Churches: Methodism was founded by John Wesley and places emphasis on personal piety, social justice, and small group accountability. Methodists believe in the possibility of experiencing Christian perfection in this life. The United Methodist Church is one of the largest Methodist denominations.
6. Pentecostal Churches: Pentecostalism focuses on the work of the Holy Spirit and emphasizes spiritual gifts, including speaking in tongues, prophecy, and divine healing. Pentecostal denominations include the Assemblies of God and the Church of God in Christ.
7. Adventist Churches: Adventism emerged from the Millerite movement and places importance on the Second Coming of Christ. The Seventh-day Adventist Church observes the Sabbath on Saturdays and emphasizes healthful living.
8. Evangelical Churches: Evangelicalism emphasizes the authority of Scripture, personal conversion, and spreading the Christian message (evangelism). It is a broad category that includes various denominations, independent churches, and non-denominational congregations.
These are some of the major denominations within Protestantism, each with its own distinct beliefs, practices, and organizational structures. It’s important to note that there is significant diversity within each denomination, and individual churches may have variations in their interpretation and expression of faith.