The Dunning-Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which individuals with low ability or expertise in a particular domain tend to overestimate their competence and mistakenly believe that they possess above-average skills. This effect was first described in a 1999 study conducted by psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger.
According to Dunning and Kruger, people who lack knowledge or skills in a specific area are often unable to recognize their own incompetence. This is because their limited understanding prevents them from accurately assessing their abilities, leading them to overestimate their competence.
In contrast, individuals with genuine expertise in a subject tend to underestimate their abilities because they assume that others possess similar levels of knowledge.
For by the grace given to me I say to everyone among you not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think,
but to think with sober judgment, each according to the measure of faith that God has assigned. (Rom 12:3)
The Dunning-Kruger effect can manifest in various aspects of life, including academic performance, decision-making, and interpersonal interactions.
For example, someone with minimal knowledge of a subject might confidently express their opinions and ideas, unaware of their lack of expertise.
Conversely, individuals with genuine expertise may doubt their abilities or downplay their knowledge due to their awareness of how much more there is to learn.
The effect has been supported by numerous studies across different fields and has important implications. It highlights the need for self-awareness and humility when assessing one’s own abilities, as well as the importance of seeking external feedback and expertise. Additionally, it underscores the potential dangers of uninformed confidence and the importance of critical thinking and ongoing learning to overcome the limitations of the Dunning-Kruger effect.
A stubborn fool considers his own way the right one, but a person who listens to advice is wise. (Pro 12:15)
Topic Closely Related: The Peter Principle